• Dagar, J.; Paramasivam, G.; Klimm, C.; Fenske, M.; Schultz, C.; Schlatmann, R.; Stegemann, B.; Unger, E.: Stability Assessment of p-i-n Perovskite Photovoltaic Mini-Modules Utilizing Different Top Metal Electrodes. Mircomachines (Basel) 12 (2021), p. 423/1-8

Open Access Version

Long-term stability is one of the major challenges for p-i-n type perovskite solar modules (PSMs). Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of fully laser-patterned series interconnected p-i-n perovskite mini-modules, in which either single Cu or Ag layers are compared with Cu/Au metal-bilayer top electrodes. According to the scanning electron microscopy measurements, we found that Cu or Ag top electrodes often exhibit flaking of the metal upon P3 (top contact removal) laser patterning. For Cu/Au bilayer top electrodes, metal flaking may cause intermittent short-circuits between interconnected sub-cells during operation, resulting in fluctuations in the maximum power point (MPP). Here, we demonstrate Cu/Au metal-bilayer-based PSMs with an efficiency of 18.9% on an active area of 2.2 cm2 under continuous 1-sun illumination. This work highlights the importance of optimizing the top-contact composition to tackle the operational stability of mini-modules, and could help to improve the feasibility of large-area module deployment for the commercialization of perovskite photovoltaics.