• Li, J.; Dagar, J.; Shargaieva, O; Flatken, M.A.; Köbler, H.; Fenske, M.; Schultz, C.; Stegemann, B.; Just, J.; Többens, D.M.; Abate, A.; Munir, R.; Unger, E.: 20.8% Slot-Die Coated MAPbI(3) Perovskite Solar Cells by Optimal DMSO-Content and Age of 2-ME Based Precursor Inks. Advanced Energy Materials 11 (2021), p. 2003460/1-8

Open Access Version (externer Anbieter)

Solar cells incorporating metal-halide perovskite (MHP) semiconductors are continuing to break efficiency records for solution-processed solar cell devices. Scaling MHP-based devices to larger area prototypes requires the development and optimization of scalable process technology and ink formulations that enable reproducible coating results. It is demonstrated that the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of small-area methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) devices, slot-die coated from a 2-methoxy-ethanol (2-ME) based ink with dimethyl-sulfoxide (DMSO) used as an additive depends on the amount of DMSO and age of the ink formulation. When adding 12 mol% of DMSO, small-area devices of high performance (20.8%) are achieved. The effect of DMSO content and age on the thin film morphology and device performance through in situ X-ray diffraction and small-angle X-ray scattering experiments is rationalized. Adding a limited amount of DMSO prevents the formation of a crystalline intermediate phase related to MAPbI3 and 2-ME (MAPbI3-2-ME) and induces the formation of the MAPbI3 perovskite phase. Higher DMSO content leads to the precipitation of the (DMSO)2MA2Pb3I8 intermediate phase that negatively affects the thin-film morphology. These results demonstrate that rational insights into the ink composition and process control are critical to enable reproducible large-scale manufacturing of MHP-based devices for commercial applications.