• Lang, F.; Köhnen, E.; Warby, J.; Xu, K.; Grischek, M.; Wagner, P.; Neher, D.; Korte, L.; Albrecht, S.; Stolterfoht, M.: Revealing Fundamental Efficiency Limits of Monolithic Perovskite/Silicon Tandem Photovoltaics through Subcell Characterization. ACS Energy Letters 6 (2021), p. 3982-3991


Perovskite/silicon tandem photovoltaics (PVs) promise to accelerate the decarbonization of our energy systems. Here, we present a thorough subcell diagnosis methodology to reveal deep insights into the practical efficiency limitations of state-of-the-art perovskite/silicon tandem PVs. Our subcell selective intensity-dependent photoluminescence (PL) and injection-dependent electroluminescence (EL) measurements allow independent assessment of pseudo-VOC and power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) for both subcells. We reveal identical metrics from PL and EL, which implies well-aligned energy levels throughout the entire cell. Relatively large ideality factors and insufficient charge extraction, however, cause each a fill factor penalty of about 6% (absolute). Using partial device stacks, we then identify significant losses in standard perovskite subcells due to bulk and interfacial recombination. Lastly, we present strategies to minimize these losses using triple halide (CsFAPb(IBrCl)3) based perovskites. Our results give helpful feedback for device development and lay the foundation toward advanced perovskite/silicon tandem PVs capable of exceeding 33% PCE.