Dagar, J.; Fenske, M.; Al-Ashouri, A.; Schultz, C.; Li, B.; Köbler, H.; Munir, R.; Parmasivam, G.; Li, J.; Levine, I.; Merdasa, A.; Kegelmann, L.; Näsström, H.; Márquez, J.A.; Unold, T.; Többens, D.M.; Schlatmann, R.; Stegemann, B.; Abate, A.; Albrecht, S.; Unger, E.: Compositional and Interfacial Engineering Yield High-Performance and Stable p-i-n Perovskite Solar Cells and Mini-Modules. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 13 (2021), p. 13022–13033
Open Accesn Version
Through the optimization of the perovskite precursor composition and interfaces to selective contacts, we achieved a p-i-n-type perovskite solar cell (PSC) with a 22.3% power conversion efficiency (PCE). This is a new performance record for a PSC with an absorber bandgap of 1.63 eV. We demonstrate that the high device performance originates from a synergy between (1) an improved perovskite absorber quality when introducing formamidinium chloride (FACl) as an additive in the “triple cation” Cs0.05FA0.79MA0.16PbBr0.51I2.49 (Cs-MAFA) perovskite precursor ink, (2) an increased open-circuit voltage, VOC, due to reduced recombination losses when using a lithium fluoride (LiF) interfacial buffer layer, and (3) high-quality hole-selective contacts with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of [2-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)ethyl]phosphonic acid (2PACz) on ITO electrodes. While all devices exhibit a high performance after fabrication, as determined from current–density voltage, J–V, measurements, substantial differences in device performance become apparent when considering longer-term stability data. A reduced long-term stability of devices with the introduction of a LiF interlayer is compensated for by using FACl as an additive in the metal-halide perovskite thin-film deposition. Optimized devices maintained about 80% of the initial average PCE during maximum power point (MPP) tracking for >700 h. We scaled the optimized device architecture to larger areas and achieved fully laser patterned series-interconnected mini-modules with a PCE of 19.4% for a 2.2 cm2 active area. A robust device architecture and reproducible deposition methods are fundamental for high performance and stable large-area single junction and tandem modules based on PSCs.