• Manley, P.; Segantini, M.; Ahiboz, D.; Hammerschmidt, M.; Arnaoutakis, G.; MacQueen, R.W.; Burger, S.; Becker, C.: Double-Layer Metasurface for Enhanced Photon Up-Conversion. APL Photonics 6 (2021), p. 036103/1-11

Open Access Version

We present a double-layer dielectric metasurface obtained by stacking a silicon nanodisk array and a silicon photonic crystal slab with equal periodicity on top of each other. We focus on the investigation of electric near-field enhancement effects occurring at resonant excitation of the metasurface and study its optical properties numerically and experimentally. We find that the major difference in multi-layer metasurfaces when compared to conventional single-layer structures appears to be in Rayleigh–Wood anomalies: they are split into multiple different modes, which are themselves spectrally broadened. As a proof of concept, we cover a double-layer metasurface with a lanthanide-doped up-conversion particle layer and study its interaction with a 1550 nm photoexcitation. We observe a 2.7-fold enhanced up-conversion photoluminescence by using the stacked metasurface instead of a planar substrate, although only around 1% of the up-conversion material is exposed to enhanced near fields. Two mechanisms are identified explaining this behavior: First, enhanced near fields when exciting the metasurface resonantly, and second, light trapping by total internal reflection in the particle layer when the metasurface redirects light into high angle diffraction orders. These results pave the way for low-threshold and, in particular, broadband photon up-conversion in future solar energy and biosensing applications.