PhD thesis:
1991 at the Institut for Solar Energy Research in Hannover (ISFH)
Title: "The photoelectrochemistry of silicon carbide"

Current status:
Senior scientist at PVcomB/HZB

Current research activity:
X-ray based analysis of surfaces and interfaces of chalkopyrite thin film solar cells at BESSY. Development of CIGS/perovskite tandem devices.

BESSY address
Phone: 0049-30 8062-15694
Room: 6216 (HMI-annex at BESSY)
Albert-Einstein-Str. 15
12489 Berlin

Selected Publications


  • Lin, X.; Madhavanc, V.E.; Kavalakkatt, J.; Hinrichs, V.; Lauermann, I.; Lux-Steiner, M.Ch.; Ennaoui, A.; Klenk, R.: Inkjet-printed CZTSSe absorbers and influence of sodium on device performance. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 180 (2018), p. 373-380

  • Parvan, V.; Mizrak, A.; Majumdar, I.; Ümsür, B.; Calvet, W.; Greiner, D.; Kaufmann, C.A.; Dittrich, T.; Avancini, E.; Lauermann, I.: Cu(In,Ga)Se2 surface treatment with Na and NaF: A combined photoelectron spectroscopy and surface photovoltage study in ultra-high vacuum. Applied Surface Science 444 (2018), p. 436-441


  • Adongo, J.O.; Neubert, T.J.; Sun, G.; Janietz, S.; Lauermann, I.; Rademann, K.; Rappich, J.: Fabrication and Characterization of Surfaces Modified with Carboxymethylthio Ligands for Chelate-Assisted Trapping of Copper. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 9 (2017), p. 24273-24281

  • Algasinger, M.; Niesen, T.; Dalibor, T.; Steigert, A.; Klenk, R.; Lauermann, I.; Schlatmann, R.; Lux-Steiner, M.Ch.; Palm, J.: Efficient Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 modules with sputtered Zn(O,S) buffer layer. Thin Solid Films 633 (2017), p. 231-234

  • El-Nagar, G.A.; Hassan, M.A.; Lauermann, I.; Roth, C.: Efficient Direct Formic Acid Fuel Cells (DFAFCs) Anode Derived from Seafood waste: Migration Mechanism. Scientific Reports 7 (2017), p. 17818/1-11

  • El-Nagar, G.A.; Sarhan, R.M.; Abouserie, A.; Maticiuc, N.; Bargheer, M.; Lauermann, I.; Roth, C.: Efficient 3D-silver flower-like microstructures for non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) amperometric detection. Scientific Reports 7 (2017), p. 12181/1-8

  • El-Nagar, Gumaa A.; Hassan, Mohamed A.; Fetyan, Abdulmonem; Kayarkatte, Manoj Krishna; Lauermann, Iver; Roth, Christina: A Promising N-doped Carbon-Metal Oxide Hybrid Electrocatalyst Derived from Crustacean’s Shells: Oxygen Reduction and Oxygen Evolution. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 214 (2017), p. 137-147

  • Majumdar, I.; Ümsür, B.; Chacko, B.; Greiner, D.; Lux-Steiner, M.Ch.; Schlatmann, R.; Lauermann, I.: Surface Modifications of Na and K Metal Incorporated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Absorbers Investigated by Synchrotron-Based Spectroscopies. Physica Status Solidi C 14 (2017), p. 1700167/1-7

  • Mei, S.; Jafta, C.J.; Lauermann, I.; Ran, Q.; Kärgell, M.; Ballauff, M.; Lu, Y.: Porous Ti4O7 Particles with Interconnected-Pores Structure as High-Efficiency Polysulfide Mediator for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries. Advanced Functional Materials 27 (2017), p. 1701176/1-10

  • Olar, T.; Manoharan, A.; Draxl, C.; Calvet, W.; Ümsur, B.; Parvan, V.; Chacko, B.; Xie, H.; Saucedo, E.; Valle-Rios, L.E.; Neldner, K.; Schorr, S.; Lux-Steiner, M.Ch.; Lauermann, I.: Valence and conduction band edges of selenide and sulfide-based kesterites - a study by x-ray based spectroscopy and ab initio theory. Semiconductor Science and Technology 32 (2017), p. 104010/1-7

  • Wang, Y.; Steigert, A.; Yin, G.; Parvan, V.; Klenk, R.; Schlatmann, R.; Lauermann, I.: Cu2O as a Potential Intermediate Transparent Conducting Oxide Layer for Monolithic Perovskite-CIGSe Tandem Solar Cells. Physica Status Solidi C 14 (2017), p. 1700164/1-6

  • von Morzé, N.; Dittrich, T.; Calvet, W.; Lauermann, I.; Rusu, M.: Transient and modulated charge separation at CuInSe2/C60 and CuInSe2/ZnPc hybrid interfaces. Applied Surface Science 396 (2017), p. 366-374


  • Bercegol, A.; Chacko, B.; Klenk, R.; Lauermann, I.; Lux-Steiner, M.Ch.; Liero, M.: Point contacts at the copper-indium-gallium-selenide interface - a theoretical outlook. Journal of Applied Physics 119 (2016), p. 155304-155304-7

  • Lauermann, I.; Steigert, A.: CISSY: A station for preparation and surface/interface analysis of thin film materials and devices. Journal of Large Scale Research Facilities JLSRF 2 (2016), p. A-67

  • Xie, H.; Lopez-Marino, S.; Olar, T.; Sanchez, Y.; Neuschitzer, M.; Oliva, F.; Giraldo, S.; Izquierdo-Roca, V.; Lauermann, I.; Perez-Rodriguez, A.; Saucedo, E.: Impact of Na Dynamics at the Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4/CdS Interface During Post Low Temperature Treatment of Absorbers. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 8 (2016), p. 5017-5024


  • Bröker, S.; Kück, D.; Timmer, A.; Lauermann, I.; Ümsür, B.; Greiner, D.; Kaufmann, C.A.; Mönig, H.: Correlating the Local Defect-Level Density with the Macroscopic Composition and Energetics of Chalcopyrite Thin-Film Surfaces. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 7 (2015), p. 13062-13072

  • Calvet, W.; Ümsür, B.; Höpfner, B.; Lauermann, I.; Prietzel, K.; Kaufmann, C.A.; Unold, T.; Lux-Steiner, M.C.: Locally resolved investigation of wedged Cu(In,Ga)Se2 films prepared by physical vapor deposition using hard X-ray photoelectron and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Thin Solid Films 582 (2015), p. 361-365

  • Höpfner, B.; Steigert, A.; Lauermann, I.; Lux-Steiner, M.Ch.: Transparent back contacts for chalcopyrites: Temperature dependency of Cu diffusion into i-ZnO substrates. EPL 109 (2015), p. 28004/p1-p5

  • Merdes, S.; Steigert, A.; Ziem, F.; Lauermann, I.; Klenk, R.; Hergert, F.; Kaufmann, C.A.; Schlatmann, R.: Influence of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 surface treatments on the properties of 30 x 30 cm2 large area modules with atomic layer deposited Zn(O,S) buffers. Thin Solid Films 574 (2015), p. 28-31

  • Merdes, S.; Ziem, F.; Lavrenko, T.; Walter, T.; Lauermann, I.; Klingsporn, M.; Schmidt, S.; Hergert, F.; Schlatmann, R.: Above 16% efficient sequentially grown Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2-based solar cells with atomic layer deposited Zn(O,S) buffers. Progress in Photovoltaics 23 (2015), p. 1493-1500

  • Muydinov, R.; Steigert, A.; Schönau, S.; Ruske, F.; Kraehnert, R.; Eckhardt, B.; Lauermann, I.; Szyszka, B.: Water-assisted nitrogen mediated crystallisation of ZnO films. Thin Solid Films 590 (2015), p. 177-183

  • Neuschitzer, M.; Sanchez, Y.; Olar, T.; Thersleff, T.; Lopez-Marino, S.; Oliva, F.; Espindola-Rodriguez, M.; Xie, H.; Placidi, M.; Izquierdo-Roca, V.; Lauermann, I.; Leifer, K.; Perez-Rodriguez, A.; Saucedo, E.: Complex Surface Chemistry of Kesterites: Cu/Zn Reordering after Low Temperature Postdeposition Annealing and Its Role in High Performance Devices. Chemistry of Materials 27 (2015), p. 5279-5287

  • Olar, T.; Lauermann, I.; Xie, H.; Neuschitzer, M.; Saucedo, E.; Calvet, W.; Steigert, A.; Ümsür, B.; Chacko, B.; Parvan, V.; Gorgoi, M.; Senkovskiy, B.; Lux-Steiner, M.Ch.: Assessment of chemical and electronic surface properties of the Cu2ZnSn(SSe)4 after different etching procedures by synchrotron-based spectroscopies. Energy Procedia 84 (2015), p. 8-16

  • Pomaska, M.; Sáez-Araoz, R.; Steigert, A.; Fu, Y.; Hergert, F.; Lauermann, I.; Dittrich, T.; Lux-Steiner, M.-C.; Fischer, Ch.-H.: Influence of Cl and H2O in spray-ILGAR solutions on the voltage gain of Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 solar cells with In2S3 buffer. Scientific Reports 132 (2015), p. 303–310

  • Steigert, A.; Lauermann, I.; Niesen, T.; Dalibor, T.; Palm, J.; Körner, S.; Scherg-Kurmes, H.; Muydinov, R.; Szyszka, B.; Klenk, R.: Sputtered Zn(O,S)/In2O3:H window layers for enhanced blue response of chalcopyrite solar cells. Physica Status Solidi - Rapid Research Letters 9 (2015), p. 627-360

  • Yin, G.; Steigert, A.; Andrä, P.; Goebelt, M.; Latzel, M.; Manley, P.; Lauermann, I.; Christiansen, S.; Schmid, M.: Integration of plasmonic Ag nanoparticles as back reflector in ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells. Applied Surface Science 355 (2015), p. 800-804

  • Ümsür, B.; Calvet, W.; Höpfner, B.; Steigert, A.; Lauermann, I.; Gorgoi, M.; Prietzel, K.; Navirian, H.; Kaufmann, C.; Unold, T.; Lux-Steiner, M.: Investigation of Cu-poor and Cu-rich Cu(In,Ga)Se2/CdS interfaces using hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Thin Solid Films 582 (2015), p. 366-370


  • Caballero, R.; Nichterwitz, M.; Steigert, A.; Eicke, A.; Lauermann, I.; Schock, H.W.; Kaufmann, C.A.: Impact of Na on MoSe2 formation at the CIGSe/Mo interface in thin-film solar cells on polyimide foil at low process temperatures. Acta Materialia 63 (2014), p. 54-62

  • Lehmann, J.; Lehmann, S.; Lauermann, I.; Rissom, T.; Kaufmann, C.A.; Lux-Steiner, M.C.; Bär, M.; Sadewasser, S.: Reliable wet-chemical cleaning of natively oxidized high-efficiency Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cell absorbers. Journal of Applied Physics 116 (2014), p. 233502/1-11

  • Merdes, S.; Malinen, V.; Ziem, F.; Lauermann, I.; Schüle, M.; Stober, F.; Hergert, F.; Papathanasiou, N.; Schlatmann, R.: Zn(O,S) buffer prepared by atomic layer deposition for sequentially grown Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 solar cells and modules. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 126 (2014), p. 120-124

  • Pistor, P.; Greiner, D.; Kaufmann, C.; Brunken, S.; Gorgoi, M.; Steigert, A.; Calvet, W.; Lauermann, I.; Klenk, R.; Unold, T.; Lux-Steiner, M.Ch.: Experimental indication for band gap widening of chalcopyrite solar cell absorbers after potassium fluoride treatment. Applied Physics Letters 105 (2014), p. 063901/1-4

  • Sarmieno-Pérez, R.; Botti, S.; Schnohr, C.S.; Lauermann, I.; Rubio Secades, A.; Johnson, B.: Local versus global electronic properties of chalcopyrite alloys: X-ray absorption spectroscopy and ab initio calculations. Journal of Applied Physics 116 (2014), p. 093703/1-5


  • Fu, Y.; Saez-Araoz, R.; Köhler, T.; Krueger, M.; Steigert, A.; Lauermann, I.; Lux-Steiner, M.Ch.; Fischer, Ch.-H.: Spray-ILGAR ZnS nanodots/In2S3 as defect passivation/point contact bilayer buffer for Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 solar cells. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 117 (2013), p. 293-299

  • Fu, Y.; Sáez Araoz, R.; Koehler, T.; Krueger, M.; Abou-Ras, D.; Steigert, A; Lauermann, I.; Bloeck, U.; Lux-Steiner, M.C.; Fischer, C.-H.: Self-Assembled, Stabilizer-Free ZnS Nanodot Films using Spray-based Approaches. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 117 (2013), p. 24632–24639

  • Johnson, B.; Klaer, J.; Merdes, S.; Gorgoi, M.; Höpfner, B.; Vollmer, A.; Lauermann, I.: Limitations of Near Edge X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure as a tool for observing conduction bands in chalcopyrite solar cell heterojunctions. Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena 190 (2013), p. 42-46

  • Juma, A.O.; Azarpira, A.; Steigert, A.; Pomaska, M.; Fischer, Ch.-H.; Lauermann, I.; Dittrich, Th.: Role of chlorine in In2S3 for band alignment at nanoporous-TiO2/In2S3 interfaces. Journal of Applied Physics 114 (2013), p. 053711/1-5

  • Paul, A.; Paul, N.; Jutimoosik, J.; Yimnirun, R.; Rujirawat, S.; Höpfner, B.; Lauermann, I.; Lux-Steiner, M.; Mattauch, S.; Böni, P.: Change in interface magnetism of an exchange-coupled system due to the presence of nonmagnetic spacers. Physical Review B 87 (2013), p. 014431/1-18

  • Paul, N.; Müller, M.; Paul, A.; Guenther, E.; Lauermann, I.; Müller-Buschbaum, P.; Lux-Steiner, M.Ch.: Molecularly imprinted conductive polymers for controlled trafficking of neurotransmitters at solid-liquid interfaces. Soft Matter 9 (2013), p. 1364-1371


  • Gloskovskii, A.; Jenkins, C.A.; Ouardi, S.; Balke, B.; Fecher, G.H.; Dai, X.-F.; Gruhn, T.; Johnson, B.; Lauermann, I.; Caballero, R.; Kaufmann, C.A.; Felser, C.: Hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of chalcopyrite solar cell components. Applied Physics Letters 100 (2012), p. 092108/1-3

  • Grimm, A.; Kieven, D.; Lauermann, I.; Lux-Steiner, M.Ch.; Hergert, F.; Schwieger, R.; Klenk, R.: Zn(O, S) layers for chalcoyprite solar cells sputtered from a single target. EPJ Photovoltaics 3 (2012), p. 30302/p1 - p4

  • Johnson, B.; Klaer, J.; Fischer, Ch--H.; Lauermann, I.: Depth profiling of a CdS buffer layer on CuInS2 measured with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy during removal by HCl etching. Thin Solid Films 520 (2012), p. 2829-2832

  • Johnson, B.; Klaer, J.; Vollmer, A.; Lauermann, I.: Electronic effects of Cd on the formation of the CdS/CuInS2 heterojunction. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A 30 (2012), p. 04D114/1-8

  • Kieven, D.; Grimm, A.; Lauermann, I.; Lux-Steiner, M.Ch.; Palm, J.; Niesen, T.; Klenk, R.: Band alignment at sputtered ZnSxO1-x/Cu(In,Ga) (Se,S)2 heterojunctions. Physica Status Solidi - Rapid Research Letters 6 (2012), p. 294-296

  • Ortel, E.; Sokolov, S.; Zielke, C.; Lauermann, I.; Selve, S.; Weh, K.; Paul, B.; Polte, J.; Kraehnert, R.: Supported Mesoporous and Hierarchical Porous Pd/TiO2 Catalytic Coatings with Controlled Particle Size and Pore Structure. Chemistry of Materials 24 (2012), p. 3828-3838

  • Paul, A.; Paul, N.; Trautmann, C.; Mattauch, S.; Jutimoosik, J.; Yimnirun, R.; Rujirawat, S.; Höpfner, B.; Lauermann, I.; Lux-Steiner, M.; Böni, P.: Direct manipulation of the uncompensated antiferromagnetic spins in exchange coupled system by GeV ion irradiation. Applied Physics Letters 100 (2012), p. 253102/1-5

  • Schlaf, R.; Höpfner, B.; Figueroa, J.; Tridas, E.; Welter, E.; Köhler, T.; Lauermann, I.; Fischer, Ch.-H.: X-ray absorption measurements on an ultrasonic spray aerosol. Journal of Synchrotron Radiation 19 (2012), p. 126-128

  • Schorr, S.; Mainz, R.; Moenig, H.; Lauermann, I.; Bär, M.: The complex material properties of chalcopyrite and kesterite thin-film solar cell absorbers tackled by synchrotron-based analytics. Progress in Photovoltaics 20 (2012), p. 557-567


  • Grimm, A.; Kieven, D.; Klenk, R.; Lauermann, I.; Neisser, A.; Niesen, T.; Palm, J.: Junction formation in chalcopyrite solar cells by sputtered wide gap compound semiconductors. Thin Solid Films 520 (2011), p. 1330-1333

  • Kieven, D.; Grimm, A.; Beleanu, A.; Blum, C.G.F.; Schmidt, J.; Rissom, T.; Lauermann, I.; Gruhn, T.; Felser, C.; Klenk, R.: Preparation and properties of radio-frequency-sputtered half-Heusler films for use in solar cells. Thin Solid Films 519 (2011), p. 1866-1871

  • Lauermann, I.: Untersuchung von Grenzflächen in Chalkopyrit-Dünnschichtsolarzellen. Vakuum in Forschung und Praxis 23 (2011), p. 35-39

  • Lauermann, I.; Bär, M.; Fischer, C.-H.: Synchrotron-based spectroscopy for the characterization of surfaces and interfaces in chalcopyrite thin-film solar cells. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 95 (2011), p. 1495-1508

  • Mönig, H.; Kaufmann, C.A.; Fischer, Ch.-H.; Grimm, A.; Caballero, R.; Johnson, B.; Eicke, A.; Lux-Steiner, M.Ch.; Lauermann, I.: Gallium gradients in chalcopyrite thin films: Depth profile analyses of films grown at different temperatures. Journal of Applied Physics 110 (2011), p. 093509/1-7

  • Sun, G.; Hovestaedt, M.; Zhang, X.; Hinrichs, K.; Rosu, D.M.; Lauermann, I.; Zielke, C.; Vollmer, A.; Loechel, H.; Ay, B.; Holzhuetter, H.-G.; Schade, U.; Esser, N.; Volkmer, R.; Rappich, J.: Infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry (IRSE) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) monitoring the preparation of maleimide-functionalized surfaces: from Au towards Si (111). Surface and Interface Analysis 43 (2011), p. 1203-1210


  • Caballero, R.; Kaufmann, C.A.; Eisenbarth,T.; Grimm, A.; Lauermann, I.; Unold, T.; Klenk, R.; Schock, H.W.;: Influence of Na on Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells grown on polyimide substrates at low temperature: Impact on the Cu(In,Ga)Se2/Mo interface. Applied Physics Letters 96 (2010), p. 092104/1-3

  • Camus, C. ; Abou-Ras, D. ; Allsop, N.A. ; Gledhill, S.E. ; Köhler, T. ; Rappich, J. ; Lauermann, I. ; Lux-Steiner, M.C. ; Fischer, Ch.-H: Formation of CuInS2-carbon multilayers in the spray ILGAR process. Physica Status Solidi A 207 (2010), p. 129-131

  • Greil, S.M.; Lauermann, I.; Ennaoui, A.; Kropp, T.; Lange, K.M.; Weber, M.; Aziz, E.F.: In situ investigation of wet chemical processes for chalcopyrite solar cells by L-edge XAS under ambient conditions. Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research B 268 (2010), p. 263-267

  • Grimm, A.; Just, J.; Kieven, D.; Lauermann, I.; Palm, J.; Neisser, A.; Rissom, T.; Klenk, R.: Sputtered Zn(O,S) for junction formation in chalcopyrite-based thin film solar cells. Physica Status Solidi - Rapid Research Letters 4 (2010), p. 109-111

  • Kieven, D.; Grimm, A.; Lauermann, I.; Rissom, T.; Klenk, R.: Band alignment at Sb2S3/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 heterojunctions and electronic characteristics of solar cell devices based on them. Applied Physics Letters 96 (2010), p. 262101/1-3

  • Marsen, B.; Steinkopf, L.; Singh, A.; Wilhelm, H.; Lauermann, I.; Unold, T.; Scheer, R.; Schock, H.-W.;: Effects of Ti-incorporation in CuInS2 solar cells. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 94 (2010), p. 1730-1733

  • Mönig, H.; Fischer, Ch.-H.; Grimm, A.; Johnson, B.; Kaufmann, C.A.; Caballero, R.; Lauermann, I.; Lux-Steiner, M.Ch.: Surface Cu-depletion of Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 thin films: Further experimental evidence for a defect-induced surface reconstruction. Journal of Applied Physics 107 (2010), p. 113540/1-5

  • Mönig, H.; Smith, Y. ; Caballero, R. ; Kaufmann, C.A. ; Lauermann, I. ; Lux-Steiner, M.Ch. ; Sadewasser, S.: Direct Evidence for a Reduced Density of Deep Level Defects at Grain Boundaries of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin Films. Physical Review Letters 105 (2010), p. 116802/1-4

  • Pistor, P.; Kötschau, I.; Grimm, A.; Jung, C.; Lauermann, I.; Lux-Steiner, M.Ch.; Fischer, C.-H.: Extended soft X-ray emission spectroscopy: quantitative assessment of emission intensities. Journal of Synchrotron Radiation 17 (2010), p. 791-798

  • Rusu, M.; Wiesner, S.; Lauermann, I.; Fischer, Ch.-H.; Fostiropoulos, K.; Audinot, J.; Fleming, Y.; Lux-Steiner, M.Ch.: Formation of charge-selective Mg–Ag electrodes to CuPc: C60 blend layers. Applied Physics Letters 97 (2010), p. 073504/1-3


  • Bai, Y.; Knittlmayer, C.; Gledhill, S.; Lauermann, I.; Fischer, Ch.-H.; Weppner, W.: Preparation and characterization of Li2CoMn3O8 thin film cathodes for high energy lithium batteries. Ionics 15 (2009), p. 11-17

  • Erfurth, F.; Hußmann, B.; Schöll, A.; Reinert, F.; Grimm, A.; Lauermann, I.; Bär, M.; Niesen, Th.; Palm, J.; Visbeck, S.; Weinhardt, L.; Umbach, E.: Chemical structure of the (Zn1-x,Mgx)O/CuIn(S,Se)2 interface in thin film solar cells. Applied Physics Letters 95 (2009), p. 122104/1-3

  • Grimm, A.; Klenk, R.; Klaer, J.; Lauermann, I.; Meeder, A.; Voigt, S.; Neisser, A.: CuInS2-based thin film solar cells with sputtered (Zn,Mg)O buffer. Thin Solid Films 518 (2009), p. 1157-1159

  • Johnson, B.; Korte, L.; Lußky, T.; Klaer, J.; Lauermann, I.: CuInS2 - CdS heterojunction valence band offset measured with near-UV constant final state yield spectroscopy. Journal of Applied Physics 106 (2009), p. 073712/1-6

  • Lauermann, I. ; Kropp, T. ; Vottier, D. ; Ennaoui, A. ; Eberhardt, W. ; Aziz, E.F: In Situ Analysis of the Zn(S,O) Buffer Layer Preparation for Chalcopyrite Solar Cells by Zn L-edge X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy. ChemPhysChem 10 (2009), p. 532-535

  • Moenig, H.; Fischer, Ch.-H.; Caballero, R.; Kaufmann, C.A.; Allsop, N.; Gorgoi, M.; Klenk, R.; Schock, H.-W.; Lehmann, S.; Lux-Steiner, M.C.; Lauermann, I.: Surface Cu depletion of Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 films: An investigation by hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Acta Materialia 57 (2009), p. 3645-3651

  • Pistor, P.; Allsop, N.; Braun, W.; Caballero, R.; Camus, C.; Fischer, Ch -H.; Gorgoi, M.; Grimm, A.; Johnson, B.; Kropp, T.; Lauermann, I.; Lehmann, S.; Moenig, H.; Schorr, S.; Weber, A.; Klenk, R.: Cu in In2S3: interdiffusion phenomena analysed by high kinetic energy X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Physica Status Solidi A 206 (2009), p. 1059-1062

  • Rusu, M.; Bär, M.; Lehmann, S.; Sadewasser, S.; Weinhardt, L.; Kaufmann, C.A.; Strub, E.; Röhrich, J.; Bohne, W.; Lauermann, I.; Jung, Ch.; Heske, C.; Lux-Steiner, M.Ch.: Three-dimensional structure of the buffer/absorber interface in CdS/CuGaSe2 based thin film solar cells. Applied Physics Letters 95 (2009), p. 173502/1-3


  • Bär, M.; Rusu, M.; Lehmann, S.; Schedel-Niedrig, Th.; Lauermann, I.; Lux-Steiner, M.C.: The chemical and electronic surface and interface structure of CuGaSe2 thin-film solar cell absorbers. Applied Physics Letters 93 (2008), p. 232104/1-3

  • Camus, C.; Allsop, N.A.; Gledhill, S.E.; Bohne, W.; Röhrich, J.; Lauermann, I.; Lux-Steiner, M. C.; Fischer, Ch.-H.: Properties of Spray ILGAR CuInS2 thin films. Thin Solid Films 516 (2008), p. 7026-7030

  • Mönig, H.; Lauermann, I.; Grimm, A.; Camus, C.; Kaufmann, C.A.; Pistor, P.; Jung, Ch.; Kropp, T.; Lux-Steiner, M.C.; Fischer, Ch.-H.: Controlled variation of the information depth by angle dependent soft X-ray emission spectroscopy: A study on polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se2. Applied Surface Science 255 (2008), p. 2474-2477


  • Allsop, N.A.; Camus, C.; Hänsel, A.; Gledhill, S.E.; Lauermann, I.; Lux-Steiner, M.C.; Fischer, Ch.-H.: Indium sulfide buffer/CIGSSe interface engineering: Improved cell performance by the addition of zinc sulfide. Thin Solid Films 515 (2007), p. 6068-6072

  • Bär, M. ; Allsop, N. ; Lauermann, I. ; Fischer, Ch.-H.: Deposition of In2S3 on Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 thin film solar cell absorbers by spray ion layer gas reaction: Evidence of strong interfacial diffusion. Applied Physics Letters 90 (2007), p. 132118/1-3

  • Bär, M.; Reichardt, J.; Sieber, I.; Grimm, A.; Kötschau, I.; Lauermann, I.; Sokoll, S.; Niesen, T.P.; Lux-Steiner, M.C.; Fischer, Ch.-H.: ZnO layers deposited by the ion layer gas reaction on Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 thin film solar cell absorbers - impact of 'damp-heat' conditions on the layer properties. Progress in Photovoltaics 15 (2007), p. 187-198

  • Kötschau, I.M. ; Weber, A. ; Pistor, P. ; Lauermann, I. ; Fischer, Ch.-H. ; Schock, H.W.: Advanced X-ray methods for chalcogenide thin film analysis. Thin Solid Films 515 (2007), p. 5992-5996

  • Lauermann, I.; Loreck, Ch.; Grimm, A.; Klenk, R.; Mönig, H.; Lux-Steiner, M.Ch.; Fischer, Ch.-H.; Visbeck, S.; Niesen, T.P.: Cu-accumulation at the interface between sputter-(Zn,Mg)O and Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 - A key to understanding the need for buffer layers? Thin Solid Films 515 (2007), p. 6015-6019


  • Bär, M.; Ennaoui, A.; Klaer, J.; Kropp, T.; Sáez-Araoz, R.; Lehmann, S.; Grimm, A.; Lauermann, I.; Loreck, Ch.; Sokoll, St.; Schock, H.-W.; Fischer, Ch.-H.; Lux-Steiner, M.C.; Jung, Ch.: Intermixing at the heterointerface between ZnS/Zn(S,O) bilayer buffer and CuInS2 thin film solar cell absorber. Journal of Applied Physics 100 (2006), p. 064911/1-9

  • Bär, M.; Reichardt, J.; Sieber, I.; Grimm, A.; Kötschau, I.; Lauermann, I.; Sokoll, S.; Lux-Steiner, M.C.; Fischer, Ch.-H.; Niesen, T.P.: ZnO layers deposited by the ion layer gas reaction on Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 thin film solar cell absorbers: Morphology, growth mechanism, and composition. Journal of Applied Physics 100 (2006), p. 023710/1-9

  • Fischer, Ch.-H. ; Bär, M. ; Glatzel, Th. ; Lauermann, I. ; Lux-Steiner, M.C.: Interface engineering in chalcopyrite thin film solar devices. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 90 (2006), p. 1471-1485

  • Lehmann, S.; Bär, M.; Fuertes-Marron, D.; Pistor, P.; Wiesner, S.; Rusu, M.; Kötschau, I.; Lauermann, I.; Grimm, A.; Sokoll, S.; Fischer, Ch.-H.; Schedel-Niedrig, Th.; Lux-Steiner, M.Ch.; Jung, Ch.: CuGaSe2-CuGa3Se5 phase transition in CCSVT-grown thin films. Thin Solid Films 511-512 (2006), p. 623-627

  • Muffler, H.-J. ; Bär, M. ; Lauermann, I. ; Rahne, K. ; Schröder, M. ; Lux-Steiner, M.C. ; Fischer, C.-H. ; Niesen, T.P. ; Karg, F.: Colloid attachment by ILGAR-layers: Creating fluorescing layers to increase quantum efficiency of solar cells. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 90 (2006), p. 3143-3150

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