Semitransparent Perovskite Mini-Modules for 4-terminal tandem integration

The Energy sources of world are depleted to a greater extent in forms of coal and other fossil fuels. The depletion of natural resources has a huge impact on the environment, e.g. Global warming. Solar photovoltaics, the renewable form of energy is one way to mitigate environmental impacts caused by energy harnessing. The solar energy can be harvested free of cost and without mining the natural resources. Silicon is the major class of material used in the solar photovoltaics due to its high efficiency and long-lasting stability. The hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskites are opening research into new dimension with record efficiency of 25.6% nearing its counterpart silicon 26.7%. In addition, perovskite having ABX3 structure makes the bandgap tunable to attract wide range of solar spectrum. Moreover, owing to its tunable bandgap, perovskite solar cells could be stacked on the top of silicon solar cells to attain a maximum efficiency from a single junction cell overcoming the Shockley-Queisser limit. Semitransparent perovskite solar cells, forms an integral part of the tandem solar cells. 

In the doctoral project, I have worked on small area semitransparent solar cells with a set baseline performance of 19%. The important aspect on the semitransparent solar cells has been to optimize the layer stack and reduce the interfacial recombination and increase the stability of the cells. The next goal of my project is to scale it up to module level and reduce the resistive losses on scaling it to larger area due to the high sheet resistance of TCOs. Finally fabricated cell and module will be prototyped, to find applications in tandem to realize 4-terminal tandems, BIPV and VIPV.

Novel compounds and materials are always nice to be investigated in our device stacks by scalable approach. Please feel free to get in touch to formulate and conceive interesting results.


1. Dagar, J.; Paramasivam, G.; Klimm, C.; Fenske, M.; Schultz, C.; Schlatmann, R. et al. (2021): Stability assessment of p-i-n perovskite photovoltaic mini-modules utilizing different top metal electrodes. In Micromachines 12 (4).

2. Florian Mathies; Edgar R. Nandayapa; Gopinath Paramasivam; Mohammad F. Al Rayes; Vincent R. F. Schröder; Carolin Rehermann et al. (2021): Gas flow-assisted vacuum drying: identification of a novel process for attaining high-quality perovskite films. In Materials Advances.

3. Janardan Dagar; Markus Fenske; Amran Al-Ashouri; Christof Schultz; Bor Li; Hans Köbler; Rahim Munir; Gopinath Parmasivam et al. (2021,month = mar): Compositional and Interfacial Engineering Yield High-Performance and Stable p-i-n Perovskite Solar Cells and Mini-Modules. In ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 13 (11), pp. 13022–13033.

4. Unger, E.; Paramasivam, G.; Abate, A. (2020): Perovskite solar cell performance assessment. In JPhys Energy 2 (4).