Modelling and Simulation
Modelling and simulations are used to support and complement measurements, as they can reduce and direct experiments needed for device development. Physics-based models are used to construct a digital counterpart of a device from the basic principles and to analyze how different factors affect the operation. Verified models can also serve as benchmarks for simpler models used for exploring the effects of a variety of operating conditions and material parameters.
Multiphysics and Differential Equation Models
Computational fluid dynamics and finite element analysis are used to study complex physicochemical problems in photovoltaic integrated electrolysers. Simulation of current density (mA/cm2) through the gas separator at different applied voltages with 5 ml/min (right) and 50 ml/min (left) electrolyte flow rates. The flow lines indicate the electrolyte velocity (cm/s).
Electrical Circuit Models
Lumped element modelling with equivalent circuits is used to represent device behaviour simply while retaining the relevant phenomena of photovoltaics and electrolysis. Results showing the effect of the light intensity, G and the operating temperature of the photovoltaic-electrolyser on the (left) normalised solar to hydrogen (STH) efficiency and (right) normalised operating current which is proportional to the rate of hydrogen production.