1.1      PERT (Passivated Emitter, Rear Totally diffused) cells

PERT cells have the advantacg of being compatible with most of the usual equipment currently used in a p-type production line. Only two additional steps are required to switch from a p-type to an n-type wafer based process. PERT cells can have a bifacial design, leading to up to 30% higher power output as compared to single sided cells.

1.2.    IBC (interdigitated back contact) cells

In IBC solar cells, both electrical contacts are on the rear side of the cell, shading losses due to the front grid are absent and an independent front side optimisation is possible. Furthermore, IBC cells open new opportunities for module interconnection.

1.3    HET (Heterojunction) cells

In amorphous/crystalline silicon heterojunctions, excellent passivation of the wafer's surfaces leads to solar cell Vocs exceeding 740mV. Furthermore, all process steps are carried out at temperatures not exceeding 250°C, which makes the HET concept very attractive especially for very thin (100 µm and below) substrates.

1.4    Piloting of cell and module fabrication

1.5    Advanced modelling and characterization

1.6   Assessment of cost and environmental impact

A global assessment of the cost and environmental impact of HERCULES modules and fabrication technologies will be carried out. The impact of the technology scale-up in the context of a 500 MW fabrication unit will be evaluated.